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Investigation of the Occurrence of Cyanotoxins in Lake Karaoun (Lebanon) by Mass Spectrometry, Bioassays and Molecular Methods

Abstract : Lake Karaoun is the largest artificial lake in Lebanon and serves multiple purposes. Recently, intensive cyanobacterial blooms have been reported in the lake, raising safety and aesthetic concerns related to the presence of cyanotoxins and cyanobacterial taste and odor (T&O) compounds, respectively. Here, we communicate for the first time results from a recent investigation by LC-MS/MS covering multiple cyanotoxins (microcystins (MCs), anatoxin-a, cylindrospermopsin, nodularin) in water and fish collected between 2019 and 2020. Eleven MCs were identified reaching concentrations of 211 and 199 μg/L for MC-LR and MC-YR, respectively. Cylindrospermopsin, anatoxin-a and nodularin were not detected. The determination of the total MCs was also carried out by ELISA and Protein Phosphatase Inhibition Assay yielding comparable results. Molecular detection of cyanobacteria (16S rRNA) and biosynthetic genes of toxins were carried out by qPCR. Untargeted screening analysis by GC-MS showed the presence of T&O compounds, such as β-cyclocitral, β-ionone, nonanal and dimethylsulfides that contribute to unpleasant odors in water. The determination of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) showed the presence of anthropogenic pollutants, mostly dichloromethane and toluene. The findings are important to develop future monitoring schemes in order to assess the risks from cyanobacterial blooms with regard to the lake’s ecosystem and its uses
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Submitted on : Tuesday, November 2, 2021 - 11:36:48 AM
Last modification on : Wednesday, November 3, 2021 - 3:53:21 AM

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Noura Hammoud, Sevasti-Kiriaki Zervou, Triantafyllos Kaloudis, Christophoros Christophoridis, Aikaterina Paraskevopoulou, et al.. Investigation of the Occurrence of Cyanotoxins in Lake Karaoun (Lebanon) by Mass Spectrometry, Bioassays and Molecular Methods. Toxins, MDPI, 2021, 13 (10), pp.716. ⟨10.3390/toxins13100716⟩. ⟨hal-03411426⟩

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