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Journal Articles Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca "Julio de Urquijo" Year : 2019

The polimorfism of the participle prospective of future and the "-n" class of verbs

Geroaldiko partizipio prospektiboaren polimorfismoa eta "-n"-dun aditz klasea

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Abstract

This paper deals with the realisation of the prospective participle, the most common way to express the future in Basque. The authors start from present-day variation, as synthesised by the Royal Academy of the Basque Language: the adjunction of the suffix -ko to the perfective participle, except for the forms ending in -n or -l, which in Eastern dialects take the genitive suffix -en. Based on the study of both old texts from different dialects and works on verbal morphology, the authors show that the variability of the marking of the prospective participle is greater than usually thought: on the one hand, Labourdin texts attest for a late use of the suffix -(r)en with vowel-ending participles (e.g. biziren, ikusiren, harturen); on the other hand, in the 17th century forms such as izaren 'izanen' and egoren 'egonen' arise in Labourdin and Western Low-Navarrese dialects. The authors consider two possible explanations for the prospective forms of the type izaren: 1) in phonological terms, a dissimilation of nasality (cf. Michelena 1990); and 2) in syntactical terms, a change in the selection of the complement argument by the T-head, lexicalised by the genitive suffix -(r)en. In this view, the forms such as emaren or egoren are the result of adding the suffix -(r)en not to a perfective participle eman 'given' or egon 'rested' (as in ikusi-ren 'seen-PROSP'), but to a verbal root -ma- or -go-, respectively.
Artikulu honek partizipio prospektiboaren gauzatzearen formak aztertzen ditu. Egileak egungo aldakortasunetik abiatzen dira, Euskaltzaindiak laburbildu bezala: partizipio perfektiboari -ko atzizkia eranstea, salbu -n edo -l bukaera duenean, ekialdeko mintzoetan -en genitiboaren atzizkia baliatzen baita. Hala hainbat euskalkitako testuetan nola aditzaren morfologiaren gaineko lanetan oinarriturik, egileek hauxe erakusten dute: partizipio prospektiboaren markatzea onartzen ohi den baino aldakorragoa dela: 1) Lapurdin -(r)en atzizkiaren erabilpen berankorra bokalez bukatzen diren partizipioekin (biziren, ikusiren, harturen); eta 2) XVII. mendetik aitzina, izaren 'izanen' & egoren 'egonen' bezalako formen agerpena lapurteraz eta mendebaldeko behe-nafarreraz. Ondoren izaren & egoren moldeko forma prospektiboak ikertuak dira, haien agerpena bilduz: lehenik, azalpen fonologiko bat formulatzen da (cf. Mitxelena 1990); bigarrenik, forma horiek denbora-burutik argumentuaren hautapenaren aldaketaren emaitza gisara analizatuak dira, genitibo atzizkiaz lexikalizatua, aspektu sintagma ala aditz sintagma izan. Ikuspegi honetan, emaren edo egoren bezalako formak ez lirateke eman & egon partizipioei, baizik ere -ma- & -go- aditz erroei -(r)en atzizkia eranstearen emaitza.
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Dates and versions

hal-02553898 , version 1 (24-04-2020)

Identifiers

  • HAL Id : hal-02553898 , version 1

Cite

Bernard Beñat, B. Oyharçabal, Manuel Padilla Moyano. Geroaldiko partizipio prospektiboaren polimorfismoa eta "-n"-dun aditz klasea. Anuario del Seminario de Filología Vasca "Julio de Urquijo", 2019, 52 (1-2), pp.619-628. ⟨hal-02553898⟩
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