D. Acemoglu, S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, Reversal of Fortune: Geography and Institutions in the Making of the Modern World Income Distribution, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.117, issue.4, pp.1231-1294, 2002.

D. Acemoglu, S. Johnson, and J. A. Robinson, The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation: Reply', American Economic Review, vol.102, issue.6, p.3077311, 2012.

D. Acemoglu, . Naidu, and R. Restrepo, Democracy Does Cause Growth', forthcoming, Journal of Political Economy, 2017.

D. Acemoglu, J. A. Robinson, and T. Verdier, Kleptocracy and Divide-and-Rule: A Model of Personal Rule, Journal of the European Economic Association, vol.2, issue.2-3, pp.162-192, 2004.

A. Ades and E. Glaeser, Trade and Circuses: Explaining Urban Giants, Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.110, pp.195-227, 1995.

D. Albouy, The Colonial Origins of Comparative Development: An Empirical Investigation: Comment, American Economic Review, vol.102, issue.6, pp.3059-76, 2012.

R. M. Anthony, Bringing up the past: Political experience and the distribution of urban populations, vol.37, pp.33-46, 2014.

C. Bai, C. Hsieh, and Z. Song, Special Deals with Chinese Characteristics', forthcoming in NBER Macroeconomics Annual, 2019.

R. H. Bates, Markets and States in Tropical Africa: The political basis of agricultural policies, 1981.

K. Behrens and F. Robert-nicoud, Survival of the Fittest in Cities: Urbanisation and Inequality, vol.124, pp.1371-1400, 2014.

F. Candau, Good Governance, Trade and Agglomeration, Papers in Regional Science, vol.87, issue.4, pp.483-504, 2008.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01844388

F. Candau, Is Agglomeration Desirable?, Annals of Economics and Statistics, vol.101, pp.203-228, 2011.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01844382

F. Candau and E. Dienesch, Spatial distribution of skills and regional trade integration, The Annals of Regional Science, vol.54, issue.2, pp.451-480, 2015.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01885150

P. Collier and A. J. Venables, Housing and Urbanization in Africa: unleashing a formal market process', Centre for the Study of African Economies, Working Paper Series, 2013.

P. P. Combes, G. Duranton, and L. Gobillon, The identication of agglomeration economies, Journal of Economic Geography, vol.11, issue.2, p.253266, 2011.

E. M. Crenshaw and R. Anthony, City Size and Political Contention, International Journal of Sociology, vol.44, issue.4, pp.7-33, 2014.

J. Davis and J. V. Henderson, Evidence on the political economy of the urbanization process, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.53, p.98125, 2003.

F. Docquier, E. Lodigiani, H. Rapoport, and M. Schi, Emigration and democracy, Journal of Development Economics, vol.120, p.209223, 2016.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01304133

G. Duranton, Viewpoint: From cities to productivity and growth in developing countries, Canadian Journal of Economics, vol.41, issue.3, pp.689-736, 2008.

J. Eeckhout, Gibrat's Law for (All) Cities, American Economic Review, vol.94, issue.5, pp.1429-1451, 2004.

L. Feler and J. V. Henderson, Exclusionary policies in urban development: Under-servicing migrant households in Brazilian cities, Journal of Urban Economics, vol.69, issue.3, pp.253-272, 2011.

R. Findlay and K. H. O'rourke, Power and Plenty: Trade, War, and the World Economy in the Second Millennium, 2009.

P. Giuliano, A. Spilimbergo, and G. Tonon, Genetic distance, transportation costs, and trade, Journal Economic Geography, vol.14, issue.1, pp.179-198, 2014.

L. Guiso, P. Sapienza, and L. Zingales, Cultural Biases in Economic Exchange?, The Quarterly Journal of Economics, vol.124, issue.3, pp.1095-1131, 2009.

K. Head and T. Mayer, Illusory Border Eects: Distance Mismeasurement Inates Estimates of Home Bias in Trade, 2002.

H. Helpman, The Size of Region, 1998.

, Theorical and Applied Analysis, pp.33-54

J. V. Henderson, A. Storeygard, and D. N. Weil, Measuring Economic Growth from Outer Space, American Economic Review, vol.102, issue.2, p.9941028, 2012.

J. V. Henderson and H. G. Wang, Urbanization and City Growth: the Role of Institutions, Regional Science and Urban Economics, vol.37, issue.1, pp.283-313, 2007.

D. Kaufmann, A. Kraay, and M. Mastruzzi, The worldwide governance indicators : methodology and analytical issues, Policy Research Working Paper Series, vol.5430, 2010.

C. Karayalcin and H. Yilmazkuday, Trade and Cities, World Bank Economic Rev iew, vol.29, issue.3, pp.523-549, 2015.

P. Krugman, Increasing Returns and Economic Geography, The Journal of Political Economy, vol.99, issue.3, pp.483-499, 1991.

P. Krugman and E. R. Livas, Trade policy and the Third World metropolis, Journal of Development Economics, vol.49, issue.1, pp.137-150, 1996.

D. Lerner, The Passing of Traditional Society: Modernizing the Middle East, 1958.

S. M. Lipset, Some Social Requisites of Democracy: Economic Development and Political Legitimacy, American Political Science Review, vol.53, issue.1, p.69105, 1959.

M. Lipton, Why Poor People Stay Poor: Urban Bias in World Development, 1977.

S. Majumdar, A. Mani, and S. Mukan, Politics, information and the urban bias, Journal of Development Economics, vol.75, issue.1, pp.137-165, 2004.

M. G. Marshall and . Jaggers, Polity IV Project: Dataset Users' Manual, 2007.

J. Mokyr, A Culture of Growth: The Origins of the Modern Economy, 2016.

V. H. Milner and B. Mukherjee, Democratization and Economic Globalization, Annual Review of Political Sciences, vol.12, issue.1, p.16381, 2009.

V. Nitsch, Trade Openness and Urban Concentration: New Evidence', Journal of Economic Integration, vol.21, issue.2, pp.340-362, 2006.

N. Nunn and . Puga, Ruggedness: The Blessing of Bad Geography in Africa, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.94, issue.1, pp.20-36, 2012.

T. J. Pemberton, M. Degiorgio, and N. A. Rosenberg, Population Structure in a Comprehensive Genomic Data Set on Human Microsatellite Variation, Genes, Genomes, vol.3, issue.5, pp.903-919, 2013.

H. Pesaran and Q. Zhou, Estimation of time-invariant eects in static panel data models, Econometric Reviews, vol.37, issue.10, pp.1137-1171, 2016.

J. E. Rauch and V. Trindade, Ethnic Chinese Networks in International Trade, Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.84, issue.1, pp.116-130, 2002.

S. Redding and A. J. Venables, Economic geography and international inequality', Journal of International Economics, vol.62, pp.53-82, 2004.

S. Silva, J. , and S. Tenreyro, The log of gravity, The Review of Economics and Statistics, vol.88, pp.641-658, 2006.

E. Spolaore and R. Wacziarg, Ancestry and Development: New Evidence, vol.33, pp.748-762, 2018.

D. Staiger and J. Stock, Instrumental Variables Regression and Weak Instruments, Econometrica, vol.65, issue.3, pp.557-586, 1997.

M. Weber, Urbanization and Social Structure in the Ancient World, Weber: Selections in Translation, 1909.