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Long-Term Dietary Replacement of Fishmeal and Fish Oil in Diets for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss): Effects on Growth, Whole Body Fatty Acids and Intestinal and Hepatic Gene Expression

Abstract : The effects of replacing fishmeal and fish oil with a plant-based diet were studied in juvenile (10g) and ongrowing (250-350g) rainbow trout from first-feeding. Feed-related differences in the intestinal and hepatic transcriptome were examined in juveniles after 7 months of feeding at 7ÊC. Based on microarray results obtained for juveniles, the expression of selected genes related to lipid, cholesterol and energy metabolisms, was assessed by RTqPCR in ongrowing trout after 6 additional months of feeding at 17ÊC. Plasma glucose and cholesterol, lipid content and fatty acid profile of whole body were analyzed at both stages. After 7 months at 7ÊC, all juveniles reached the same body weight (10g), while at 13 months ongrowing fish fed the totally plant-based diet exhibited lower body weight (234 vs 330- 337g). Body lipid content was higher in juveniles fed the totally plant-based diet (13.2 vs 9.4±9.9%), and plasma cholesterol was about 2-times lower in trout fed the plant-based diets at both stages. Fatty acid profile mirrored that of the respective diet, with low proportions of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in fish fed plant-based diets. Genes involved in protein catabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and trafficking were down-regulated in the intestines of juveniles fed the plant-based diets. This was not true for ongrowing fish. Genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolisms were up-regulated in the livers of fish fed plant-based diets for both stages. In this study, feeding trout a totally plant-based diet from first-feeding affect a relatively low proportion of metabolism-related genes. In the longer term, when fish were reared at a higher temperature, only some of these changes were maintained (i.e. up-regulation of lipid/cholesterol metabolism). Although the plant-based diets tested in this study had no major deficiencies, small adjustments in the feed-formula are needed to further optimize growth performance while sparing marine resources.
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Viviana Lazzarotto, Françoise Médale, Laurence Larroquet, Geneviève Corraze. Long-Term Dietary Replacement of Fishmeal and Fish Oil in Diets for Rainbow Trout (Oncorhynchus Mykiss): Effects on Growth, Whole Body Fatty Acids and Intestinal and Hepatic Gene Expression. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2018, 13 (1), pp.e0190730. ⟨10.1371/journal.pone.0190730⟩. ⟨hal-02139720⟩

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